Co-morbidities Prevention & Management, References

References Part IV - Prevention and Management of Co-morbidities in PLWH

Antiretroviral drugs product information European Medicines Agency

Hill A, Hughes SL, Gotham D, Pozniak AL. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: is there a true difference in efficacy and safety? J Virus Erad 2018;4:72-79

Mallon PWG, Brunet L, Hsu RK et al. Weight gain before and after switch from TDF to TAF in a U.S. cohort study. Journal of international AIDS Society 2021;24:e25702 DOI:10.1002/jia2.25702

Milinkovic A, Berger F, Arenas-Pinto, Mauss S. Reversible effect on lipids by switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide and back. AIDS 2019 33: 2387-2391 DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000002350

Sax PE, Erlandson KM, Lake JE et al. Weight Gain Following Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Risk Factors in Randomized Comparative Clinical Trials. Clin Infect Dis 2020; 71:1379-1389 DOI:10.1093/cid/ciz999

Shah S, Hindley L, Hill A. Are New Antiretroviral Treatments Increasing the Risk of Weight Gain? Drugs 2021;81 :299-315 DOI:10.1007/s40265-020-01457-y

Lefebvre M, Walencik A, Allavena C et al. Rate of DRESS Syndrome With Raltegravir and Role of the HLA-B*53 Allele. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020; 85:e77-e80 DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000002474

Abrams E, Myer L. Lessons from dolutegravir and neural tube defects. Lancet HIV 2021 8;e3-e4 DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30280-0

EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Journal of Hepatology 2018;69:182-236 DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.019

Powles T, Imami N, Nelson M et al. Effects of combination chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy on immune parameters in HIV-1 associated lymphoma. AIDS 2002; 16: 531–536. DOI:10.1097/00002030- 200203080-00003

Esdaile B, Davis M, Portsmouth S et al. The immunological effects of concomitant highly active antiretroviral therapy and liposomal anthracycline treatment of HIV-1-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. AIDS 2002; 16: 2344– 2347. DOI:10.1097/00002030-211220-00019

Alfa-Wali M, Allen-Mersh T, Antoniou A et al. Chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer in HIV patients causes prolonged CD4 cell count suppression. Ann Oncol 2012; 23: 141–147 DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdr050

Interventions for tobacco cessation in adults including pregnant persons. US Preventative Services Task Force Recommendation Statement JAMA 2021;325(3):265-279 DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.25019

Behavioural Counselling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults Without Cardiovascular Risk Factors. US Preventative Services Task Force Recommendation Statement JAMA 2017;318(2):167-174 DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.7171

Behavioural Counseling Interventions to Promote a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. US Preventative Services Task Force Recommendation Statement JAMA 2020;324(20):2069-2075

European Smoking Cessation Guidelines ( DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.21749

Calvo-Sanchez M, Martinez E. How to address smoking cessation in HIV patient HIV Med 2015; 16: 201-210 DOI:10.1111/hiv.12193

The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) European Heart Journal (2018) 39, 3021–3104. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339

2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J 2020 Jan 1;41(1):111-188. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz455

2019 ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323 DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz486

CHIP Clinical (Cardiovascular) Risk Assessment Tool

Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, Rossing P, Mingrone G, Mathieu C, D'Alessio DA, Davies MJ. 2019 update to: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).Diabetologia. 2020 Feb;63(2):221-228. doi: 10.1007/s00125-019-05039-w.American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Targets: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2020 Jan; 43(Supplement 1): S66-S76.

Boccara et al for the BEIJERINCK Investigators. Evolocumab in HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol 75 No 20 May 2020; 2570-84 DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.025.

Falls Risk Assessment Tool falls-risk-assessment-tool

Fracture Risk Assessment Tool®

Goh SSL, Lai PSM, Tan ATB, Ponnampalavanar S. Reduced bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals: a meta-analysis of its prevalence and risk factors: supplementary presentation. Osteoporos Int 2018, 29:1683 DOI:10.1007/s00198-018-4379-y

Negredo E, Warriner AH: Pharmacologic approaches to the prevention and management of low bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2016, 11:351-357 DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000271.
This manuscript describes the most common approaches to treat osteopo rosis in PLWH; beyond bisphosphonates, there are a few other osteoporosis treatment options that are known to be effective in improving BMD and reducing fracture risk in this population

Premaor MO, Compston JE: People living with HIV and fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 2020, 31:1633-1644 DOI:10.1007/s00198-020-05350-y
This recent review covers the epidemiology and pathophysiology of osteoporosis in PLWH, addresses approaches to fracture risk assessment and discusses the current evidence-base for pharmacological interventions to reduce fracture risk

KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf

CHIP Clinical (Kidney) Risk Assessment Tool

Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D’Agati et al. Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference Kidney Int. 2018 Mar;93(3):545-559 DOI: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.11.007

EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Journal of Hepatology 2018;69:182-236 DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.019

MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) Score Calculator 12 and older

Roberto de Franchis on behalf of the Baveno VI Faculty. Expanding consensus in portal hypertension Report of the Baveno VI Consensus Workshop: Stratifying risk and individualizing care for portal hypertension. J Hepatol 2015 63(3):743–752 Portal Hypertensive Bleeding in Cirrhosis: Risk Stratification, Diagnosis, and Management: 2016 Practice Guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Hepatology. 2017 Jan;65(1):310-335 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.05.022

Maurice JB, Patel A, Scott AJ et al. Prevalence and risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-monoinfection. AIDS 2017; 31:1621-32 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001504

EASL–EASD–EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL),European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). J Hepatol 2016 Jun;64(6):1388-402 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.11.004

European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) Obesity Guidelines. Available at:

Wharton S, Lau DCW, Vallis M et al. Obesity in Adults: a clinical practice guideline. CMAJ 2020; 192(31): E875-E891 DOI:

Schutz DD, Busetto L, Dicker D et al. European Practical and Patient-Centred Guidelines for Obesity Management in Primary Care. Obes Facts 2019; 12: 40-66 DOI:10.1159/000496183

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McAuley M et al. Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission N Engl J Med 2016; 375:830-839 DOI: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1600693

Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T et al. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. Lancet 2019; 393: 2428–38 DOI:

Tariq S, Delpech V and Anderson J. The impact of the menopause transition on the health and wellbeing of women living with HIV: a narrative review. Maturitas 88: 76-83;2016 doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.03.015

WHO Policy brief. Transgender people and HIV. WHO/HIV/2015.17

International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines

Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology 49(6):822-830. DOI:10.1016/S0090-4295(97)00238-0

Female Sexual Functioning Index

Free and bioavailable testosterone calculator

Mollan KR, Smurzynski M, Eron JJ, et al. Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk for suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide: an analysis of trial data. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 1;161(1):1-10 DOI:10.7326/M14-0293

Brandt C, Zvolensky MJ, Woods SP et al. Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review of and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017;51:164-84 DOI:10.1016/j.cpr/2016.11.005

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB et al. Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:317-25 DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Association, Arlington VA USA 2013

Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 2 Item Screening Tool (GAD-2)
This link provides details on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD- 2) screening tool for anxiety and validation details in persons with HIV

Freudenreich O, Goforth HW, Cozza K et al. Psychiatric Treatment of Persons with HIV/AIDS: An HIV-Psychiatry Consensus Survey of Current Practices. Psychosomatics. 2010; 51:480–8. DOI: 10.1016/S0033- 3182(10)70740-4

Garakani A, Murrough JW, Freire RC et al. Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders : Current and Emerging Treatment Options. Front Psychiatry. 2020; 11:595584 DOI : 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.595584

Boustani MA, Campbell NL, Munger S, Maidment I, Fox GC. Impact of anticholinergics on the aging brain: a review and practical application. Aging Heatlh. 2008;4(3):311-320. DOI:10.2217/1745509X.4.3.311

Winston A, Antinori A, Cinque P, Fox HS, Gisslen M, Henrich TJ, Letendre S, Persaud D, Price RW, Spudich S. Defining cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape: editorial review AIDS. AIDS. 2019 Dec 1;33 Suppl 2:S107-S111. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002252.
This manuscript outlines the rationale for the consensus definition of cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape which is utilised in the EACS Guidelines

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Pocket Guide to COPD Diagnosis, Management and Prevention. A Guide for Health Care Professionals. 2021 Report.

Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale

COPD Assessment Test

Divo M, Celli BR. Multimorbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Clin Chest Med. 2020 Sep;41(3):405-419. doi: 10.1016/j. ccm.2020.06.002.

Presti RM, Flores SC, Palmer BE, et al. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease. Chest. 2017;152(5):1053-1060. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2017.04.154

Han MK, Tayob N, Murray S et al. Predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation reduction in response to daily azithromycin therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 15;189(12):1503-8. doi: 10.1164/ rccm.201402-0207OC.

WHO Guidelines on Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE) 2017;jsessionid=1D2957E0CEEB6271255FBA6F30084771?sequence=1
The recommendations provided in these WHO guidelines on integrated care for older people (ICOPE) offer evidence-based guidance on the appropriate approaches to detect and manage important declines in physical and mental capacities as they are strong predictors of mortality and care dependency in older age.

Deprescribing Resource

Verheij E, Kirk GD, Wit FW, et al. Frailty is associated with mortality and incident comorbidity among middle-aged HIV-positive and HIV negative participants. J Infect Dis. 2020;222:919–928 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa010
Authors demonstrated that frailty is a strong predictor of mortality and incident comorbidity with those who were prefrail being at intermediate risk for both outcomes

Kooij KW, Wit FW, Schouten J et al. HIV infection is independently associated with frailty in middle-aged HIV type 1-infected individuals compared with similar but uninfected controls. AIDS. 2016 Jan;30(2):241-50 DOI:10.1097/ QAD.0000000000000910
A significantly higher prevalence of frailty among PWH compared to HIV-negative controls was demonstrated in a European cohort

Verheij E, Wit FW, Verboeket SO, et al. Frequency, Risk Factors, and Mediators of Frailty Transitions During Long-Term Follow-Up Among People With HIV and HIV-Negative AGEhIV Cohort Participants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021;86:110–118 DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000002532
Distinct factors may contribute to frailty transitions, with many of those factors being potentially preventable and reversible

Brañas F, Ryan P, Troya J et al. Geriatric Medicine: the geriatrician’s role. European Geriatric Medicine. 2019;10(2):259-265. DOI: 10.1007/s41999- 018-0144-1

Aprahamian I, Lin SM, Suemoto CK, et al. Feasibility and factor structure of the FRAIL scale in older adults. JAMDA. 2017;18(4):367.e11e367.e18 DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2016.12.067

Manzardo C, Londoño MC, Castells L et al. Direct-acting antivirals are effective and safe in HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients who experience recurrence of hepatitis C: A prospective nationwide cohort study. Am J Transplant. 2018 Oct;18(10):2513-2522. doi: 10.1111/ajt.14996.

Agüero F, Forner A, Manzardo C et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection does not worsen prognosis of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2016 Feb;63(2):488-98 DOI:10.1002/hep.28321

Van Maarseveen EM, Rogers CC, Trofe-Clark J et al. Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral and immunosuppressive agents in HIV-infected patients after solid organ transplantation: a review. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2012 Oct;26(10):568-81 DOI: 10.1089/apc.2012.0169

Miro JM, Montejo M, Castells L, et al. Outcome of HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients: a prospective and multicenter cohort study. Am J Transplant. 2012 Jul;12(7):1866-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- 6143.2012.04028.x

Mazuecos A, Fernandez A, Andres A et al. Spanish Study Group Advances in Renal Transplantation (GREAT). Kidney transplantation outcomes in HIV infection: the European experience. Am J Transplant 2011 Mar;11(3):635-6 DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03420.x

Stock PG, Barin B, Murphy B et al. Outcomes of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected recipients. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 18;363(21):2004-14. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 7;364(11):1082 DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1001197

Miro JM, Torre-Cisnero J, Moreno A et al. A GESIDA/ GESITRA-SEIMC, PNS and ONT consensus document on solid organ transplant (SOT) in HIV-infected patients in Spain. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2005 Jun-Jul; 23(6): 353-62 DOI:10.1157/13076175