Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19, References

References Part VI - Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19


Absar N, Daneshvar H, Beall G. Desensitization to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in HIV-infected patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994 Jun;93(6):1001-5. doi: 10.1016/s0091-6749(94)70048-6.

Ambrosioni J, Blanco JL, Reyes-Urueña JM, et al. Overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults living with HIV. Lancet HIV. 2021 May;8(5):e294-e305. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00070-9
The article provides an overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with HIV, including risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, management, prognostic factors and outcomes

Antinori A, Cicalini S, Meschi S, et al. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response Elicited by mRNA Vaccination Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy Based on Current CD4 T-Lymphocyte Count. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2022:ciac238
Prospective study investigating the immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in persons with HIV

Atkinson A, Miro JM, Mocroft A, et al. No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/μL. J Int AIDS Soc. 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25726
The study provides rationale for discontinuation of secondary PcP prophylaxis at lower, than previously recommended CD4 count (i.e. > 100 cells/μL)

Burza S, Mahajan R, Kazmi S, et al. AmBisome Monotherapy and Combination AmBisome-Miltefosine Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Patients Coinfected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in India: A Randomized Open-Label, Parallel-Arm, Phase 3 Trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2022:ciac127
Randomized, open-label clinical trial documenting similar outcomes in persons with HIV treated for visceral leishmaniasis receiving a combination therapy of oral miltefosine plus liposomal Amphotericin B or current WHO-recommended regimen

Chalmers JD, Crichton ML, Goeminne PC, et al. Management of hospitalised adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a European Respiratory Society living guideline. Eur Respir J. 2021 Apr 15;57(4):2100048. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00048-2021. Yang X, Sun J, Patel RC, et al. Associations between HIV infection and clinical spectrum of COVID-19: a population level analysis based on US National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) data. The Lancet HIV 2021;8:e690–e700

Conradie F, Diacon AH, Ngubane N, et al. Nix-TB Trial Team. Treatment of Highly Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 5;382(10):893-902. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1901814
An open-label, single-group study evaluated the safety, adverse effect, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of a regimen with bedaquiline, linezolid and pretomanid in persons with XDR- and MDR-TB. The study documents a favorable outcome after 6 months of treatment in app. 90% of patients

Dorman SE, Nahid P, Kurbatova EV, et al. Four-Month Rifapentine Regimens with or without Moxifloxacin for Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 6; 384(18):1705-1718. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2033400
Open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB and documenting non-inferior efficacy of a 4-month rifapentine-based regimen containing moxifloxacin to the standard 6-month regimen in the treatment of TB

Ferretti F, Bestetti A, Yiannoutsos CT, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of JC virus DNA in plasma in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 15. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy030
A retrospective study analyzing JCV-DNA in plasma prior to PML onset. Study results provide evidence for using JCV-DNA in plasma as a marker for PML diagnosis and disease progression, especially if CSF is not available

Gopalan N, Santhanakrishnan RK, Palaniappan AN,et al. Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018. Apr 1;178(4):485-493
Open-label randomized clinical trial comparing daily, part-daily and intermittent antituberculosis therapy in PLWH. In this study, daily anti-TB regimen proved superior to a thrice-weekly regimen in terms of efficacy and emergence of rifampicin resistance in PLWH

Ingle SM, Miro JM, May MT et al. Early antiretroviral therapy not associated with higher cryptococcal meningitis mortality in people with HIV in high-income countries: an international collaborative cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 8:ciad122
Large, multicentric retrospective study suggesting that early initiation of ART in cryptococcal meningitis may be possible and safe in high-income countries

Jarvis JN, Lawrence DS, Meya DB, et al. Single-Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B Treatment for Cryptococcal Meningitis. New England Journal of Medicine 2022;386:1109–1120
Randomized, controlled study documenting non-inferiority of single-dose liposomal Amphotericin B combined with flucytosine and fluconazole against WHO-recommended therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in persons with HIV

Leoung GS, Stanford JF, Giordano MF, et al. Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) dose escalation versus direct rechallenge for Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with previous adverse reaction to TMP-SMZ. J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 15;184(8):992-7. doi: 10.1086/323353.

Meintjes G, Stek C, Blumenthal L, et al.; PredART Trial Team. Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379:1915-1925
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial documenting advantage of Prednisone use to prevent TB-associated IRIS after ART initiation in persons with HIV

Mitjà O, Alemany A, Marks M, et al. Mpox in people with advanced HIV infection: a global case series. Lancet. 2023 Mar 18;401(10380):939-949. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00273-8
Global case series illustrating clinical features of Mpox in persons with advanced HIV infection

Molloy SF, Kanyama C, Heyderman RS, et al. Antifungal Combinations for Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 15;378(11):1004-1017
Randomized trial documenting noninferiority of alternative induction phase regimen for treatment of Cryptococcal meningitis, i.e. high dose fluconazole plus flucytosine for 2 weeks or 1 week of amphotericin B with either fluconazole or flucytosine vs. standard regimen of 2 weeks amphotericin B with either fluconazole or flucytosine. The study results are beneficial for resource-limited settings, where amphotericin B availability is limited

Nomah DK, Reyes-Urueña J, Díaz Y, et al. Sociodemographic, clinical, and immunological factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and severe COVID-19 outcomes in people living with HIV: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet HIV 2021;8:e701–e710
These three large-sized cohort studies illustrates the clinical features and outcomes of persons with HIV infected with SARS-CoV-2

Prosty C, Hanula R, Levin Y, Bogoch II, McDonald EG, Lee TC. Revisiting the Evidence Base for Modern-Day Practice of the Treatment of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 8;76(3):e1302-e1319
Meta-analysis suggesting the non-inferiority of TMP-SMX when compared to standard regimens for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis

Rao AK, Schrodt CA, Minhaj FS, et al. Interim Clinical Treatment Considerations for Severe Manifestations of Mpox - United States, February 2023. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2023;72:232–243.DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7209a4
Interim clinical guidelines for management of Mpox

Shelburne SA, Montes M, Hamill RJ. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: more answers, more questions J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006; 57:167-70
The article introduces criteria for IRIS diagnosis and definitions for paradoxical and unmasking IRIS

Sterling TR, Njie G, Zenner D, et al. Guidelines for the Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: Recommendations from the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association and CDC, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep 2020;69 (No. RR-1):1–11. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6901a1

Sun J, Zheng Q, Madhira V, et al. Association Between Immune Dysfunction and COVID-19 Breakthrough Infection After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in the US. JAMA Internal Medicine 2022;182:153–162
A large cohort study identifying a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in fully-vaccinated persons with HIV

Swindells S, Ramchandani R, Gupta A, et al. BRIEF TB/A5279 Study Team. One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis N Engl J Med. 2019 Mar 14;380(11):1001-1011. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1806808
A randomized, open-label, phase 3 study documenting that 1-month regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing TB in persons with HIV


BHIVA guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV 2018 (2021 interim update) www.bhiva.org/TB-guidelines

WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis: module 4: treatment: drug-susceptible tuberculosis treatment www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240048126
Updated WHO guidelines for treatment of drug-susceptible TB

WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 4: treatment - drug- resistant tuberculosis treatment, 2022 update www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240063129
Updated WHO guidelines for treatment of MDR/XDR-TB