Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19, References

References Part VI - Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19

Shelburne SA, Montes M, Hamill RJ. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: more answers, more questions J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006; 57:167-70
The article introduces criteria for IRIS diagnosis and definitions for paradoxical and unmasking IRIS

Meintjes G, Stek C, Blumenthal L, et al.; PredART Trial Team. Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379:1915-1925
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial documenting advantage of Prednisone use to prevent TB-associated IRIS after ART initiation in PLWH

Atkinson A, Miro JM, Mocroft A, et al. No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/μL. J Int AIDS Soc. 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25726
The study provides rationale for discontinuation of secondary PcP prophylaxis at lower, than previously recommended CD4 count (i.e. > 100 cells/μL)

Hakim J, Musiime V, Szubert AJ et al for the REALITY Trial Team. Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa.N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 20;377(3):233-245
The study provides rationale for use of enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis (TMP-SMX, isoniazid, fluconazole, azithromycin and albendazole) combined with ART in PLWH and advanced immunosuppression in order to reduce mortality without compromising viral suppression or increasing toxic effects

Molloy SF, Kanyama C, Heyderman RS, et al. Antifungal Combinations for Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 15;378(11):1004-1017
Randomized trial documenting noninferiority of alternative induction phase regimen for treatment of Cryptococcal meningitis, i.e. high dose fluconazole plus flucytosine for 2 weeks or 1 week of amphotericin B with either fluconazole or flucytosine vs. standard regimen of 2 weeks amphotericin B with either fluconazole or flucytosine. The study results are beneficial for resource-limited settings, where amphotericin B availability is limited

Ferretti F, Bestetti A, Yiannoutsos CT, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of JC virus DNA in plasma in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 15. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy030
A retrospective study analyzing JCV-DNA in plasma prior to PML onset. Study results provide evidence for using JCV-DNA in plasma as a marker for PML diagnosis and disease progression, especially if CSF is not available

Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N et al. Official American Thoracic Society/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016; 63:e147-95

Dorman SE, Nahid P, Kurbatova EV, et al. Four-Month Rifapentine Regimens with or without Moxifloxacin for Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 6; 384(18):1705-1718. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2033400
Open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly diagnosed pulmonaryTB and documenting non-inferior efficacy of a 4-month rifapentine-based regimen containing moxifloxacin to the standard 6-month regimen in the treatment of TB

Gopalan N, Santhanakrishnan RK, Palaniappan AN,et al. Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018. Apr 1;178(4):485-493
Open-label randomized clinical trial comparing daily, part-daily and intermittent antituberculosis therapy in PLWH. In this study, daily anti-TB regimen proved superior to a thrice-weekly regimen in terms of efficacy and emergence of rifampicin resistance in PLWH

WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 4: treatment - drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240007048
Extended guidelines, providing up-to-date recommendations for treatment of drug-resistant TB, explains rationale and evidence behind current treatment principles

F Conradie, AH Diacon, N Ngubane, et al. Nix-TB Trial Team. Treatment of Highly Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 5;382(10):893-902. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1901814
An open-label, single-group study evaluated the safety, adverse effect, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of a regimen with bedaquiline, linezolid and pretomanid in persons with XDR- and MDR-TB. The study documents a favorable outcome after 6 months of treatment in app. 90% of patients

Sterling TR, Njie G, Zenner D, et al. Guidelines for the Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: Recommendations from the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association and CDC, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep 2020;69(No. RR-1):1–11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6901a1

Swindells S, Ramchandani R, Gupta A, et al. BRIEF TB/A5279 Study Team. One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis N Engl J Med. 2019 Mar 14;380(11):1001-1011. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1806808
A randomized, open-label, phase 3 study documenting that 1-month regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing TB in PLWH

BHIVA guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV 2018 (2021 interim update). https://www.bhiva.org/TB-guidelines

Ambrosioni J, Blanco JL, Reyes-Urueña JM, et al. Overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults living with HIV. Lancet HIV. 2021 May;8(5):e294-e305. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00070-9
The article provides an extensive overview of up-to-date evidence regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH, including risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, management, prognostic factors and outcomes

J D Chalmers, M L Crichton, P C Goeminne, et al. Management of hospitalised adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a European Respiratory Society living guideline. Eur Respir J. 2021 Apr 15;57(4):2100048. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00048-2021