EACS Guidelines 2021


Welcome to the EACS Guidelines!

These Guidelines were developed by the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS), a not-for-profit organisation, whose mission is to promote excellence in standards of care, research and education in HIV infection and related co-infections, and to actively engage in the formulation of public health policy, with the aim of reducing the HIV disease burden across Europe.

The EACS Guidelines were first published in 2005, and are currently available, online as a pdf and web-based version, and as a free App for iOS and Android devices. The Guidelines are as of 2021 no longer produced as a printed booklet, but continue to be translated into several different languages. The Guidelines undergo formal minor revisions annually and major revisions every second year. Interim updates may however also be provide at any time the panels consider it necessary.

The aim of the EACS Guidelines is to provide easily accessible and comprehensive recommendations to clinicians involved in all aspects of care of people living with HIV (PLWH).

The EACS Guidelines cover a relatively large and diverse area geographically, with different national levels of access to care. As a natural consequence, the Guidelines aim to cover a relatively wide range of recommendations as opposed to the often more uniform national guidelines.

The 2021 version of the Guidelines includes updates of all existing sections but have also included an entirely new section on COVID-19 in PLWH and recommendations on paediatric ART developed in collaboration with Penta. The most essential changes are listed in the Summary of changes from v10.1 to v11.0

Each respective section of the Guidelines is managed by a panel of experienced European HIV experts, with additional experts in other fields of expertise included where necessary. All recommendations are evidence-based whenever possible and based on expert opinions in the rare instances where adequate evidence is unavailable. The Guidelines do not provide formal grades of evidence, panels make decisions by consensus or by vote when necessary and we do not publish results of the votes or discrepancies if any occur.

The EACS Guidelines panels are overseen by a Guidelines Chair who serves a three-year term and is elected from the Governing Board. Each panel is led by a Panel Chair, supported by a Vice-Chair and a Young Scientist. The Co-Chair will take over the role of Chair after the Chair’s term expires. Panel membership is reviewed annually and rotation is overseen by the Panel Leads and Guidelines Chair according to a standard operating procedure. Operational matters of the EACS Guidelines are led by a Coordinator in the Medical Secretariat, supported by the EACS Secretariat.

Only the latest and key references used to produce the Guidelines are provided in a separate section, see References. New in 2021 is the inclusion of a short summary of the key findings of highligted references.

Please reference the EACS Guidelines as follows: EACS Guidelines version 11.0, October 2021. Video links to the EACS online course on Management of HIV and Co-infections are provided throughout the Guidelines, see Video links.

The diagnosis and management of HIV infection and related co-infections, opportunistic diseases and co-morbidities across all ages continue to require a multidisciplinary effort for which we hope the 2021 version of the EACS Guidelines will provide you with an easily accessible overview.

All comments to the Guidelines are welcome and can be directed to guidelines@eacsociety.org

We wish to warmly thank all panellists, external experts, linguists, translators, the EACS Secretariat, the Sanford team and everyone else who helped to build up and to publish the EACS Guidelines for their dedicated work.


Georg Behrens and Lene Ryom
October 2021


Medical Secretariat

The EACS Medical Secretariat is responsible for the coordination and update of the EACS Guidelines based on the recommendations from the five EACS panels.

Guidelines Chair: Georg Behrens - Hannover, Germany
Guidelines Coordinator: Lene Ryom - Copenhagen, Denmark

Panel Members

HIV Treatment

Chair: José Arribas - Madrid, Spain
Vice-Chair: Jean-Michel Molina - Paris, France
Young scientist: Rosa De Miguel Buckley - Madrid, Spain

Andrea Antinori - Rome, Italy
Margherita Bracchi - London, United Kingdom
Alexandra Calmy - Geneva, Switzerland
Nikos Dedes - Athens, Greece
Andrzej Horban - Warsaw, Poland
Christine Katlama - Paris, France
Inga Latysheva - Saint Petersburg, Russia
Jens D. Lundgren - Copenhagen, Denmark
Sheena McCormack - London, United Kingdom
Cristina Mussini - Modena, Italy
Anton Pozniak - London, United Kingdom
Federico Pulido - Madrid, Spain
François Raffi - Nantes, France
Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink - Hamburg, Germany
Marc van der Valk - Amsterdam,The Netherlands
Marta Vasylyev - Lviv, Ukraine

Drug-drug interactions

Chair: Catia Marzolini - Basel, Switzerland
Vice-Chair: Giovanni Guaraldi - Modena, Italy

Sara Gibbons - Liverpool, United Kingdom
Françoise Livio - Lausanne, Switzerland


Chair: Patrick Mallon - Dublin, Ireland
Vice-Chair: Alan Winston - London, United Kingdom
Young scientist: Aoife Cotter - Dublin, Ireland

Georg Behrens - Hannover, Germany
Jordi Blanch - Barcelona Spain
Franck Boccara - Paris, France
Mark Bower - London, United Kingdom
Fatima Brañas - Madrid, Spain
Paola Cinque - Milan, Italy
Simon Collins - London, United Kingdom
Juliet Compston - Cambridge, United Kingdom
Susanne Dam Nielsen - Copenhagen Denmark
Stéphane De Wit - Brussels, Belgium
Leonardo M. Fabbri - Modena, Italy
Christoph A. Fux - Aarau, Switzerland
Magnus Gisslen - Gothenburg, Sweden
Giovanni Guaraldi - Modena, Italy
Esteban Martínez - Barcelona, Spain
Catia Marzolini - Basel, Switzerland
José M. Miro - Barcelona, Spain
Eugenia Negredo - Barcelona, Spain
Peter Reiss - Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Lene Ryom - Copenhagen, Denmark
Giada Sebastiani - Montreal, Canada

Alessia Dalla Pria - London, United Kingdom

Viral Hepatitis Co-infections

Chair: Andri Rauch - Bern, Switzerland
Vice-Chair: Christoph Boesecke - Bonn, Germany
Young scientist: Charles Béguelin - Bern, Switzerland

Juan Berenguer - Madrid, Spain
Sanjay Bhagani - London, United Kingdom
Raffaele Bruno - Pavia, Italy
Svilen Konov - London, United Kingdom
Karine Lacombe - Paris, France
Stefan Mauss - Düsseldorf, Germany
Luís Mendão - Lisbon, Portugal
Lars Peters - Copenhagen, Denmark
Massimo Puoti - Milan, Italy
Jürgen K. Rockstroh - Bonn, Germany

Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19

Chair: Ole Kirk - Copenhagen, Denmark
Vice-Chair: Paola Cinque - Milan, Italy
Young scientist: Daria Podlekareva - Copenhagen, Denmark

Juan Ambrosioni - Barcelona, Spain
Nathalie De Castro - Paris, France
Gerd Fätkenheuer - Cologne, Germany
Hansjakob Furrer - Bern, Switzerland
José M. Miro - Barcelona, Spain
Cristiana Oprea - Bucharest, Romania
Anton Pozniak - London, United Kingdom
Alain Volny-Anne - Paris, France

Paediatric HIV Treatment

Chair: Alasdair Bamford - London, United Kingdom
Co-chair: Steven B Welch - Birmingham, United Kingdom
Young Scientist: Hylke Waalewijn - Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Stefania Bernardi - Rome, Italy
David Burger - Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Guido Castelli Gattinara - Rome, Italy
Elena Chiappini - Florence, Italy
Angela Colbers - Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Alexandra Compagnucci - Villejuif, France
Catherine Dollfus - Paris, France
Caroline Foster - London, United Kingdom
Luisa Galli - Florence, Italy
Vania Giacomet - Milan, Italy
Hermione Lyall - London, United Kingdom
Mariana Mardarescu - Bucharest, Romania
Laura Marques - Porto, Portugal
Lars Naver - Stockholm, Sweden
Tim Niehues - Krefeld, Germany
Antoni Noguera-Julian - Barcelona, Spain
Pablo Rojo - Madrid, Spain
Christoph Rudin - Basel, Switzerland
Vana Spoulou - Goudi, Greece
Gareth Tudor-Williams - London, United Kingdom
Anna Turkova - London, United Kingdom
Alla Volokha - Kyiv, Ukraine

Wave representative:
Justyna D. Kowalska - Warsaw, Poland

Governing Board Members

Sanjay Bhagani, President - London, United Kingdom
Esteban Martínez, Vice President - Barcelona, Spain
Ann Sullivan (Secretary) - London, United Kingdom
Miłosz Parczewski (Treasurer) - Szczecin, Poland
Jürgen Rockstroh (Immediate Past President) - Bonn, Germany

Karoline Aebi-Popp - Bern, Switzerland
Juan Berenguer - Madrid, Spain
Christoph Boesecke - Bonn, Germany
Antonella Castagna - Milan, Italy
Justyna Kowalska - Warsaw, Poland
Tetiana Kyrychenko - Poltava, Ukraine
Jens D. Lundgren - Copenhagen, Denmark
Paddy Mallon - Dublin, Ireland
Jean-Michel Molina - Paris, France
Cristina Mussini - Modena, Italy
Cristiana Oprea - Bucharest, Romania

Conflicts of Interest

The panel members’ declarations of interest are available upon request.

EACS Office

European AIDS Clinical Society
56, rue des Colonies
1000 Brussels, BELGIUM
Tel +32 (0)2 316 1019