EACS Guidelines 2023

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Welcome to the EACS Guidelines 2023!

These Guidelines were developed by the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS), a not-for-profit organisation, whose mission is to promote excellence in standards of care, research and education in HIV infection and related co-infections, and to actively engage in the formulation of public health policy, with the aim of reducing the HIV disease burden across Europe. 

The EACS Guidelines were first published in 2005, and are currently available, online as a pdf and web-based version, and as a free App for iOS and Android devices. The pdf version continues to be translated into several different languages. 

The Guidelines undergo formal minor revisions annually and major revisions every second year. Interim updates may however also be provided at any time the panels consider it necessary. 

The aim of the EACS Guidelines is to provide easily accessible and comprehensive recommendations to clinicians involved in all aspects of care. Unless mentioned otherwise, they always refer to the specific management of people with HIV. 

The EACS Guidelines cover a relatively large and diverse area geographically, with different national levels of access to care. As a natural consequence, the Guidelines aim to cover a relatively wide range of recommendations as opposed to the often more uniform national guidelines. 

The 2023 version of the Guidelines includes updates of all existing sections. The most essential changes are listed in the Summary of changes from v11.1 to v12.0

Each respective section of the Guidelines is managed by a panel of experienced European HIV experts, with additional experts in other fields of expertise included where necessary. All recommendations are evidence-based whenever possible and based on expert opinions in the rare instances where adequate evidence is unavailable. The Guidelines do not provide formal grades of evidence, panels make decisions by consensus or by vote when necessary and we do not publish results of the votes or discrepancies if any occur.

The EACS Guidelines panels are overseen by a Guidelines Chair who serves a three-year term and is elected from the Governing Board. Each panel is led by a Panel Chair, supported by a Vice-Chair and a Young Scientist. The Co-Chair will take over the role of Chair after the Chair’s term expires. Panel membership is reviewed annually and rotation is overseen by the Panel Leads and Guidelines Chair according to a standard operating procedure. Operational matters of the EACS Guidelines are led by a Coordinator in the Medical Secretariat, supported by the EACS Secretariat.

Only the latest and key references used to produce the Guidelines are provided in a separate section, see References. A short summary of the key findings of highlighted references is included.

Please reference the EACS Guidelines as follows: EACS Guidelines version 12.0, October 2023. Video links to the EACS online course on Management of HIV and Co-infections are provided throughout the Guidelines, see Video links.

The diagnosis and management of HIV infection and related co-infections, opportunistic diseases and co-morbidities across all ages continue to require a multidisciplinary effort for which we hope the 2023 version of the EACS Guidelines will provide you with an easily accessible overview.

All comments to the Guidelines are welcome and can be directed to guidelines@eacsociety.org

We wish to warmly thank all panelists, external experts, linguists, translators, the EACS Secretariat, the Sanford team and everyone else who helped to build up and to publish the EACS Guidelines for their dedicated work.


Jürgen Rockstroh and Juan Ambrosioni 

October 2023


Medical Secretariat

The EACS Medical Secretariat is responsible for the coordination and update of the EACS Guidelines based on the recommendations from the six EACS panels.

Guidelines Chair: Jürgen Rockstroh - Bonn, Germany 
Guidelines Coordinator: Juan Ambrosioni - Barcelona, Spain

Panel Members

HIV Treatment

Chair: Jean-Michel Molina - Paris, France
Vice-Chair: Alexandra Calmy - Geneva, Switzerland
Young scientist: Laura Levi - Paris, France

Juan Ambrosioni - Barcelona, Spain 
Andrea Antinori - Rome, Italy
Jose Ramón Arribas - Madrid, Spain
Margherita Bracchi - London, United Kingdom
Nikos Dedes - Athens, Greece
Rosa de Miguel Buckley - Madrid, Spain 
Christian Hoffmann - Hamburg, Germany 
Christine Katlama - Paris, France
Justyna Kowalska - Warsaw, Poland
Inga Latysheva - Saint Petersburg, Russia
Jens D. Lundgren - Copenhagen, Denmark
Sheena McCormack - London, United Kingdom
Cristina Mussini - Modena, Italy
Anton Pozniak - London, United Kingdom
Federico Pulido - Madrid, Spain
François Raffi - Nantes, France
Marc van der Valk - Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Marta Vasylyev - Lviv, Ukraine

Drug-drug interactions

Chair: Giovanni Guaraldi - Modena, Italy
Vice-Chair: Catia Marzolini - Basel/Lausanne, Switzerland 

Sara Gibbons - Liverpool, United Kingdom
Françoise Livio - Lausanne, Switzerland


Chair: Alan Winston - London, United Kingdom
Vice-Chair: Esteban Martínez - Barcelona, Spain
Young scientist: Jasmini Alagaratnam - London, United Kingdom 

Georg Behrens - Hannover, Germany
Jordi Blanch - Barcelona, Spain
Franck Boccara - Paris, France
Mark Bower - London, United Kingdom
Fatima Brañas - Madrid, Spain
Paola Cinque - Milan, Italy
Juliet Compston - Cambridge, United Kingdom
Aoife Cotter - Dublin, Ireland 
Alessia Dalla Pria - London, United Kingdom
Susanne Dam Nielsen - Copenhagen, Denmark
Leonardo M. Fabbri - Modena, Italy
Magnus Gisslen - Gothenburg, Sweden
Giovanni Guaraldi - Modena, Italy
Déborah Konopnicki - Brussels, Belgium
Justyna Kowalska - Warsaw, Poland 
Patrick Mallon - Dublin, Ireland
Catia Marzolini - Basel/Lausanne, Switzerland 
Luis Mendao - Lisbon, Portugal
José M. Miró - Barcelona, Spain
Eugenia Negredo - Barcelona, Spain
Lene Ryom - Copenhagen, Denmark
Giada Sebastiani - Montreal, Canada
Marc van der Valk - Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Viral Hepatitis Co-infections

Chair: Christoph Boesecke - Bonn, Germany
Vice-Chair: Juan Berenguer - Madrid, Spain
Young scientist: Kathrin van Bremen - Bonn, Germany

Charles Béguelin - Bern, Switzerland
Sanjay Bhagani - London, United Kingdom
Raffaele Bruno - Pavia, Italy
Svilen Konov - London, United Kingdom
Karine Lacombe - Paris, France
Stefan Mauss - Düsseldorf, Germany
Luís Mendão - Lisbon, Portugal
Lars Peters - Copenhagen, Denmark
Massimo Puoti - Milan, Italy
Andri Rauch - Bern, Switzerland
Jürgen K. Rockstroh - Bonn, Germany

Opportunistic Infections and COVID-19

Chair: Paola Cinque - Milan, Italy
Vice-Chair: Cristiana Oprea - Bucharest, Romania
Young scientist: Andrea Mastrangelo - Lausanne, Switzerland

Juan Ambrosioni - Barcelona, Spain
Nathalie De Castro - Paris, France
Gerd Fätkenheuer - Cologne, Germany
Hansjakob Furrer - Bern, Switzerland
Ole Kirk - Copenhagen, Denmark
José M. Miró - Barcelona, Spain
Daria Podlekareva - Copenhagen, Denmark
Anton Pozniak - London, United Kingdom
Alain Volny-Anne - Paris, France

Paediatric HIV Treatment

Chair: Alasdair Bamford - London, United Kingdom
Co-chair: Steven B Welch - Birmingham, United Kingdom
Young Scientist: Hylke Waalewijn - Cape Town, South Africa 

Stefania Bernardi - Rome, Italy
David Burger - Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Guido Castelli Gattinara - Rome, Italy
Elena Chiappini - Florence, Italy
Angela Colbers - Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Alexandra Compagnucci - Villejuif, France
Catherine Dollfus - Paris, France
Caroline Foster - London, United Kingdom
Pierre Frange - Paris, France 
Luisa Galli - Florence, Italy
Vania Giacomet - Milan, Italy
Tom Jacobs - Nijmegen, The Netherlands 
Hermione Lyall - London, United Kingdom
Mariana Mardarescu - Bucharest, Romania
Laura Marques - Porto, Portugal
Lars Naver - Stockholm, Sweden
Tim Niehues - Krefeld, Germany
Antoni Noguera-Julian - Barcelona, Spain
Paolo Paioni - Zurich, Switzerland 
Pablo Rojo - Madrid, Spain
Vana Spoulou - Goudi, Greece
Anna Turkova - London, United Kingdom
Alla Volokha - Kyiv, Ukraine

Wave representative: Anna Koval - Kyiv, Ukraine 

Governing Board Members

President: Esteban Martínez - Barcelona, Spain 
Vice President: Miłosz Parczewski - Szczecin, Poland 
Treasurer: Christoph Boesecke - Bonn, Germany 
Secretary: Ann Sullivan - London, United Kingdom 
Immediate Past President: Sanjay Bhagani - London, United Kingdom 

Karoline Aebi-Popp - Bern, Switzerland
Juan Berenguer - Madrid, Spain
Antonella Castagna - Milan, Italy
Justyna Kowalska - Warsaw, Poland
Jens D. Lundgren - Copenhagen, Denmark
Paddy Mallon - Dublin, Ireland
Jean-Michel Molina - Paris, France
Cristina Mussini - Modena, Italy
Cristiana Oprea - Bucharest, Romania
Jürgen Rockstroh - Bonn, Germany 
Marta Vasylyev - Lviv, Ukraine

Conflicts of Interest

The panel members’ declarations of interest are available upon request.

EACS Office

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